Tuesday, March 20, 2012



This famous car brand founded by a man 20 years has worked on other Italian companies, and remained unnoticed until, until you opened your own business.
Enzo Ferrari (Enzo Ferrari) was born in 1898 worked at the company Alfa Romeo: first there was the factory team rider, then a specialist to prepare for the race cars. His team, Scuderia Ferrari in the 30s. "dragged" to a full racing program of the company Alfa Romeo. But even before the Second World War, Enzo Ferrari decided to go his own way.

The first road car Enzo Ferrari was not called by his name. The car "815" with a 1.5-liter inline "eight" has produced a company Auto-Avio Costruzioni shortly before the Second World War
In 1939, in Modena was registered firm Auto-Avio Costruzioni di Ferrari Enzo ("Auto-Avio Kostrutsioni di Ferrari Enzo"). However, the first machine with the name of Ferrari as a brand and the famous stallion rearing as an emblem was built at the factory in Maranello, near Modena, in a 1947 Ferrari First, interested only in motor racing and road cars built and sold only to obtain funds to racing the program.


On the Enzo Ferrari worked the best body builder company in Italy, such as the Milanese "atelier" Touring ("Touring"). The word "superleggera" in the logo stands for the patented "super easy" bodywork. But the lion's share of production cars Ferrari has a body of Pininfarina ("Pininfarina")
According to many knowledgeable people all his life of Enzo Ferrari's attitude to their road cars as a necessary evil. Racing remained for him the priority activity until his death. Racing Team Ferrari - the only one to date, "stable", which took part in all the races in the Formula 1 Grand Prix. A long list of victories so far is the yardstick by which evaluated the success other teams.

As the first model of Enzo Ferrari, the car "166" shown in the photo in the variants "Barchetta" ("Barketta" - "boat") and coupe, distinguished by a small engine capacity. With its 12-cylinder engine was only a 2-liter. Hence the numerical index model: each of the cylinders had a volume of 166 cm '. Bodies engaged in Milanese design "studio" Touring
Since its inception, the firm and non-stop Ferrari continually expanding. If in the early 50s. factory in Maranello produced at least 50 road cars per year, the beginning of 70s. annual production exceeded one thousand copies.

In the history of the company had two cars with Testa Rossa ("Testa Rossa" - "Red Head"). We are talking about a car with a V-shaped 12-cylinder engine cylinder capacity of 3 liters. The photo shows a model of the "250 Testa Rossa" of the sample in 1958, immediately after its debut, she won a leading position in road racing, winning the 1958 Le Mans and World Championship sports car
During the first 20 years of existence of Ferrari all of its road models had engines VI2. Later installed V8 engines and even a V6, have been widely used turbo, but all the engines were very powerful and vysokoborotnymi.
Even more famous than the Testa Rossa, a model of "250GTO". This is a modification of the sports car road "250GT", specially adapted for participation in endurance racing. As the car Testa Rossa, complete its 3-liter V12. Ferrari 250GTO was released a limited edition, so in these days is the most desirable acquisition for collectors
Development of designs Ferrari cars passed through several clearly distinguishable periods of successive in a logical sequence. From 1947 to 1964, all road Ferrari had a front-mounted V-shaped 12-cylinder engine and rear-wheel drive with a dependent suspension. They had the same type of frame from the pipes of oval cross section. Body for the first machines were ordered on the side benefit of body "studio" in Italian enough, but the beginning of the 60s. preference was given once and for all the company Pimnfarina as a designer and company Scaglietti ("Skaletti") as their producer.
This was called car Ferrari Dino. He was no less elegant than any other car company, but is available over a wide range of buyers. Introduced in 1967, he opened a brand new Dino, "subsidiary" in relation to Ferrari. For the company's Dino was a milestone: the first car with the engine within the database, the first model without the V-shaped 12-cylinder engine. Dino got engine V6, first 2-liter, 2.4-liter later
After 1964, the Ferrari cars are increasingly used independent rear suspension. On some of them are located behind the gear box. In the late 60s. was born the first road car with the engine within the wheelbase. At the same time attempts were made to create a parallel brand Dino ("Dino"), so that under it could bring to market a 6-cylinder cars.
Until the appearance in the 1990 car Lamborghini Diablo, and others like him supercars, shown here Ferrari F40 car had virtually no competitors. Debut ztoy model took place in 1987 Its engine, a 3-liter V-shaped "eight" with two turbochargers and intercooling, developed the power of 471 hp It is enough that at a certain skill to disperse the car to a speed of 360 km / h The basis of the car was racing model "288GTO", created in the 80s.
The turning point in the affairs of the company was in 1969 when Ferrari gave half of his firm's concern FIAT. At the Ferrari cars themselves are not affected. In the mid-70s. Production has remained the one and only model with a front engine, and in the early 80s it became clear that this machine is present in the program, the company only in order to delay the inevitable parting with it. Since the 90's. company produced a model with only the motor within the base.
Enzo Ferrari died in 1998, and concern FIAT took him under his wing a company completely. At that time four-wheel drive models, Ferrari had no brakes with ABS system has just been put into use, and experiments with the "advanced" electronics were in their infancy.

Friday, March 16, 2012



Despite the fact that the company existed only 29 years old, survived the crash on Wall Street and the ensuing depression, she became one of the most prestigious in the world and maintained its reputation to this day. Pierce, George (George N. Pierce) Pierce made ​​the first car in 1904 In 1909 all the cars were brand new Pierce-Arrow. By 1914, the company offers three well-developed 6-cylinder models, including "66", which was considered the biggest series of the machine age in the U.S..

The elegant and high-speed model, Pierce-Arrow was decorated with sculpted figures an archer, in this case, "VI2" 1932
By 1915 the company has built more than 12 thousand cars. Most of them belong to the prestigious. Issue related models "38" / "48" / "66" finally ceased in 1923 and replaced in the mid 20's. there were cars with engines smaller working volume.
In 1928, George Pierce became ill and decided to leave the firm after selling her company Studebaker ("Studebaker"). Soon after President Pierce-Arrow was Albert Erskine (Albert Erskine), who headed the Studebaker. Sales of Pierce-Arrow cars have doubled - up to 10 thousand units in 1929

Body Pierce-Arrow VI2 1933 had a delightful design
In the so-called multi-cylinder race, which began after the collapse on Wall Street, Pierce-Arrow Company first introduced nizhneklapanny 8-cylinder engine in 1931 - the motor V12. The previous six-cylinder engines were replaced with two new models of motors that are in the 30's. installed on all models of the company.
Due to the economic downturn Pierce-Arrow was released in 1932 only 2241 cars. At the same Ab Jenkins (Ab Jenkins) on the modernized car "V12" broke many speed records. Next year Studebaker entered external administration. As a result, Albert Erskine, committed suicide, and Pierce-Arrow Company was sold to a group of businessmen and bankers.

A typical Pierce-Arrow was a respectable and dignified with a large car wheelbase. In the photo - model 1932
Despite this, the company has managed to produce a luxury car exhibition Silver Arrow ("Silver Arrow"), but the start of its release, it failed because the final bankruptcy in August, 1934 Still, the company revived. In 1936 the car received a body-date appearance. The volume of production was low and steadily falling. If the 1935 Pierce-Arrow built 875 cars, in 1936 - 787, and in 1937 - only 167. The final blow came in the spring of 1938, after assembling the last 30 cars. The remains of the famous American company had been sold at auction. Attempts at regeneration is not followed, and one of the most well-known brands disappeared forever.
Fierce-Arrow 66 ("Pierce-Arrow 66"), 1910-1918
The first six-cylinder Pierce used a car that was built specifically for racing, "Glidden Tour" (Glidden Tour) in 1906 is natural that in 1909 he installed on the machine Fierce-Arrow. A year later, the largest of them, a working volume of 5.13 liters, was used in the model "66", which remained in production until joining the U.S. in 1918 in the first world war.

With its powerful 13.5-liter six-cylinder engine Fierce-Arrow Model 66 without too much effort to develop high speed
This car was the largest in a series of six-cylinder cars Fierce-Arrow. Its wheelbase of 3.55 meters in 1913 increased to 3.75 m Motor consisted of three separate 2-cylinder cast iron block on aluminum crankcase with large and heavy cast-iron pistons. The engine was a low speed. Its working volume was increased from the initial 10.6 liters to 11.7 liters in 1910, and then - up to 13.5 liters. Maximum cardinality, he developed only at 1200 rev / min. While this engine was the largest of the proposed on American cars. When the T-shaped combustion chambers motion gatel packaged with a dual ignition system with two spark plugs per cylinder. Six of them were powered by a magneto, and the remaining six - from the ignition coil. The driver could use one or the other set or two at the same time.
Conventional notions of American chassis differed interesting feature: the foot and hand brake acted on the same outer and inner drum pads, respectively. Famous lights built into the front wings, appeared in 1913 while maintaining the same body.
For nine years, was made in 1638 of large Fierce-Arrow 66. A significant number of these vehicles arrived in Minneapolis. Handbook of Fire Protection gave "good" to build on the basis of "66" fire-fighting vehicles.
Recent instances of this model were collected in 1918, then even the Fierce-Arrow company realized that the time for such machines is gone.

This is an open touring Fierce-Arrow in 1914 was different characteristic headlights built into the front fenders

Characteristics (1912)
Engine: P6, nizhneklapanny
Bore and stroke: 127x177, 8 mm
Displacement: 13,514 cm3
Maximum power: 80 hp
Transmission: 4-speed manual gearbox, rear-wheel drive
Chassis: the steel ladder frame
Suspension: dependent on semi-elliptic leaf springs
Brakes: drum (rear wheels only)
Body: various types of
Maximum speed: 113 km / h
Fierce-Arrow Straight Eight ("Pierce Arrow Straight Eight")
The generation of cars with a new row "eight" (the lower valves, crankshaft polnooporny) Fierce-Arrow Company has established long before the difficulties in the U.S. economy and the emergence of problems with the sale of motor vehicles with a large working volume.
Cars Fierce-Arrow Straight Eight created prior to the sale of Studebaker. From their production decided not to give up. The decision was worth it. It was the most powerful cars in the history of the company. They had an excellent chassis that allowed the body to lower the floor level, improved manageability and cost less than their 6-cylinder predecessors. Externally, it was typical of Fierce-Arrow, and the company expects the 30-ies. prosperity.

Fierce-Arrow Straight Eight in 1930 with a luxurious seven-seat phaeton body
But because of the events on Wall Street, everything collapsed. Model Eight of the planned level of sales has not reached. In the 1930 model year, managed to sell 6795 of these cars in 1931 - 4522. Then the number of buyers has decreased dramatically. In 1935 (after another crisis of the company) was produced 523 cars, and in the last year of production of the factory in Buffalo, NY, came out of 121 cars.
Despite this, the company offered three options for the engine working volume, although a clear explanation of this fact was not followed. In 1928 Fierce-Arrow began to install the engine cylinder capacity of 5991 cm3, and used it until 1935 In 1929, a version with a slightly reduced engine diameter cylinder (5587 cm3). It is installed parallel to 1931 and before production ceased in 1938, but with a break in 1931-1933., Produced version of a working volume of 6306 cm3 with an increased stroke and the same as the first engine, the cylinder diameter. Engine power of 115, 125 and 132 hp respectively.
In 30-ies. Chassis of this model was very similar to appeared in the 1931 model, "V12", and all exterior improvements to one of them crossed to the other. Company Fierce-Arrow is always attentively monitored Detroit trends in design. So in 1934 a form of body is more rounded, improved equipment vehicles, and in 1936 the car received a new frame with a crossbar and the cross is shifted forward engine.
In 10 years Straight Eight production has lagged behind in a constructive manner (for example, it has not received an independent front suspension), although the quality of manufacturing remained the same, very high level.

Fierce-Arrow Straight Eight 1932 The body design of the first cars looked like "VIZ" the same year

Characteristics (1928)
Engine: P8, nizhneklapanny
Bore and stroke: 85,85 x120, 65 mm
Displacement: 5587 cm3
Maximum Power: 115 hp
Transmission: 4-speed manual
Chassis: the steel frame
Suspension: dependent on semi-elliptic leaf springs
Brakes: drum
Body: 2 to 7 different types of local
Maximum speed: 137 km / h
Pierce-Arrow V12 ("Pierce-Arrow V12")
In light of the dire economic situation in the U.S. early 30-ies. seems inexplicable desire to start production of large, complex and powerful cars with V-shaped 12 - and 16-cylinder engines. But the emergence of such machines from firms Cadillac ("Cadillac"), Lincoln ("Lincoln") and Marmon ("Mapmon") and the company made ​​the Fierce-Arrow in 1931, to submit their own well-developed model of the "V12" with 7,6 - liter engine.

This 7.6-liter Fierce-Arrow VI2 body to the city was built in 1937 shortly before the closing of the company. In that year, out of the gate of the factory came out of 137 cars
Such a step can be explained by the desire to create an ad. The project initially was not seen as profitable. For eight years the company managed to sell just a very expensive 1812 cars "V12". In the first year, they cost from 3650 USD - $ 200 more expensive Cadillac VI2 ("Cadillac"). For comparison, the price of the most popular 4-cylinder Ford's ("Ford") - it started with $ 410.
For the "V12" reinforced frame chosen from the long wheelbase version of the model of Eight ("Eight"). Sam V-shaped 12-cylinder engine had a classic for this type of engine design with a cylinder angle of the collapse of 80 °, two cast-iron block on aluminum crankcase, crankshaft polnoopornym and bottom-valve to the hydraulic lifters in the drive.
The instrument panel is one of five Silver Arrow cars worth 10 thousand dollars. Unusual in its form, called a "bird's eye". Windshield frame decorated with the lining of the maple wood
Raise the level of sales could not even Ab Jenkins, who set to the maximum lite "V12" a number of speed records at Bonneville Salt Lake. The company hoped to raise interest in using the exhibition of cars Silver Arrow, far ahead of time, but they were built in 1933, a total of five units at a price of 10 thousand dollars.
The first samples of the model were 6, 5 - or 7-liter engines, but even with 150 hp provide the necessary characteristics was not possible. So in 1933 came with a larger version of the engine to 7.6 liter working volume (175 hp). His and installed on the car before the end of production.
Rierce-Arrow Silver Arrow V12, built for the exhibition "Century of Progress" in Chicago (1933), was the "highlight" of exposure. The shape of his body doing enough in the wind tunnel. Therefore, the maximum machine speed increased to 185 km / h Spare tires were stored inside the front fenders. Note the very narrow rear windows
Characteristics (Silver Arrow, 1933)
Engine: VI2, nizhneklapanny
Bore and Stroke: 88,9 x101, 6mm
Displacement: 7566 cm3
Maximum Power: 175 hp
Transmission: 3-speed manual
Chassis: the steel frame
Suspension: dependent on semi-elliptic leaf springs
Brakes: drum
Body: Sedan
Maximum speed: 185 km / h



Department of Ford Britain ("Ford UK") was opened 8 years after the parent company, founded by Henry Ford (Henry Ford) in the U.S.. It happened in 1911 with the beginning of the first assembly plant in Trafford Park, Manchester. Other European subsidiaries such as Ford Germany ("Ford Germany", 1925), Matford ("Matford", 1934) and Ford France ("Ford France", 1947), came to light later, each with its own managerial staff and its own distribution network.

Ford Europe uses Basic logo (here reproduced in the company name in the blue oval). In recent decades, increasingly used standardized series of machines
Before the 30-ies. all produced in Europe, American cars were designed - Model "T", "A" and "V8" - and used a variety of American-made components. In 30-ies. was a series of midget cars in Europe with eight motors and 10 hp, and then came the period of their own development. Prior to the 60s. British, French and German cars differ structurally, and themselves branch maintained their independence from each other. After 10 years they have entered into a single organization Ford Europe, was a joint development of models. Later, Ford built a plant in Spain, where he began making front-wheel drive model Fiesta ("Fiesta").
Department of the European Ford first produced different models. Anglia 105E ("105E England") with a bent back rear window - British model 50s. The integration began in the 70s. One of the first models with a common body has become Capri ("Capri"), in photo at right shows a special version of "RS3100" with a British engine V6, improved suspension and brakes
In the 60's. English Ford in terms of production ahead of its competitors in the UK, taking the habit of more frequent updating of models. The basis for this success are cars like the first version of the model Cortina ("Cortina"), production of which began in 1962 and was accompanied by the necessary changes to maintain the attractiveness of appearance. In 1966, her body became more angular, and then came version of "Mk3" with smooth lines, and then returned to the sharp forms. Ford has made every effort to maintain the freshness of the design of the conventional car. In the same way done with a series of Escort ("Escort"), while the third generation of these cars has become front-wheel, and the successor of Cortina - a streamlined model of the Sierra ("Sierra") - has remained rear-wheel drive. Virtually every European Ford model was intended for mass production, but in the 60s. goal was to achieve the heights of motorsports. So on this special limited edition sports car.
When Ford was unable to acquire the company Ferrari, UK prostroili own racing GT40 Le Mans ("Le Mans")
The first of these was in the 1963 Lotus Cortina - Model Cortina engine Lotus, and collected by this company. For two years she was recognized the winner of the rally and circuit racing. It was replaced by Escort Twin-Cam ("Twin Cam") with the same engine, and later published a series of sporting options Escort. They also praised Ford victories around the world.
After the release of 70-ies. a number of interesting sports sedan. Ford Europe has lost face. The authority was restored after the development of high-speed Sierra. This image shows the version of the Cosworth RS500 1987
Along with the model developed in the U.S. Mustang in Europe, released a similar car Capri smaller. Capri produced in a variety of options, but most impressive were "V6" and special "RS". In the early 80s. the flow of new products for some time exhausted. At the end of the decade, new exciting machines, in particular the Escort RS Turbo and Sierra RS Cosworth ("Kosuort").
Yet the most successful and high-speed wheel-drive road car was a Sierra Cosworth engine within the database who are late to join the short-lived rally in the category of groups ("B"). By the early 90s. created several of its different variants - hatchback and sedan, including the all-wheel drive performance, as well as a quick and easy Escort RS Cosworth.
Since the beginning of "all-wheel drive" era in international rallies (late 70s). There are other manufacturers are ambitious, but with the Escort Cosworth Ford retained its fighting capacity. Lady in the 90s. Escort rally options have been competitive
In the 90's. something went wrong in the European Ford. In the UK, he was subjected to the strongest attack resurgent Vauxhall ("Vauxhall"). But it has helped the so-called style of "new face" (New Edge), which carried out the model Ca ("Ca"), Focus ("Focus"), Puma ("Puma") and Cougar ("Cougar"). Sedan Mondeo ("Mondeo") in recent years has become a solid middle peasantry British Touring Car Championship.



Manag first car Henry Ford (Henry Ford) built in 1896 in a workshop near his home in Detroit. This happened long before the foundation of his own company. Having worked on the famous inventor Thomas Edison (Thomas Edison), then the firm Detroit Automobile ("Detroit Otomobayl"), he founded in 1903 by Ford Motor Company. The first Ford cars were hand-made, large and expensive. The breakthrough came in 1908 thanks to the model "T".

The current Ford logo is little different from the inscription on the radiator model "T Tourer" ("tourer") 1911
By selling these cars at the lowest price in a single embodiment, Ford sought to "put America on wheels." In addition, at its plant in Highland Park in 1913 he introduced the moving production line, thus significantly reducing manufacturing cost.
As a result, from 1908 to 1927 were collected 15 million vehicles a model "T", and the Ford Motor Company became the market leader in the U.S.. Henry Ford was a conservative man, rarely listen to their advice. Although the model "A" and followed her car with a V8 engine proved very successful, the company entered into a serious conflict with the unions and the 30-ies. gradually gave way to lead.

The main products until the ford models "V8" in 1932 were cars like the model "A"
In place of the model "T" came the model "A". Structurally, the car turned out to be quite modern: it had a 3-speed gearbox, brakes on all wheels, has received a number of new products for the global automotive industry. For the first time on it used tempered windshield, hydraulic shock absorbers, the first machine with a station wagon went into production.

Model "T" Ford has created a firm reputation for massive, simple and cheap cars. T Ford introduced in 1908 as a "people's car". It was the first model in the world, collected on a conveyor belt. Made of more than 15 million units, it remains the best selling in all the continents before Volkswagen Beetle ("Volkswagen Beetle"). This shows the Ford T Tourer 1911
Success was instantaneous. During the first 16 months of production the company has sold over a million cars. This record was repeated only after 57 years with the model of Ford Escort ("Escort") of the European branch. For model "A" followed by a less successful model of "AB", and then more solid "V8", called "The last mechanical triumph of Ford." The car has the chassis of the model of "AB", including the not very effective brakes. Despite some problems with the gears, the car was in the 30s. the basis of the production program of Ford. By this time, American cars, including "V8", every year, subject to stylistic changes. Before his death, Henry Ford's company was on the verge of bankruptcy. Saved the grandson of Henry Ford II, who came to the leadership after World War II.

American Ford used the logo on the model of Thunderbird ("Thunderbird") in 1956
By this time, Ford has already produced a model Mercury ("Mercury") and Lincoln ("Lincoln"), owned offices in Europe and other continents. Still, the main products of concern were cheap family cars. Ford sales in the U.S. increased from 480 thousand units in 1946 to 1.5 million in 1959 and up to 2 million in 1970 All this time, Ford was fighting for the title of the most successful American carmaker. But it took only a second place for General Motors. From time to time indulged in the creation of Ford vehicles such as the two-seater Thunderbird 50s., Who enjoyed phenomenal success Mustang ("Mustang"), 7-liter Galaxie ("Galaxy") and Torino ("Turin") - all 60 's., and 1.6-liter Pinto ("Pinto") early 70's.

Ford acquired the well-known Italian bodybuilder "atelier" Ghia in 1970 Since then, Ford is using its logo to celebrate their well-equipped versions of production models
The energy crisis of the 70-80s. Ford forced to reduce the size of their cars, to reduce engine power and simplify their style. Like its rivals, Ford began to establish ties with Japanese companies (in this case with Mazda), which made it possible to start mass production of front wheel drive cars. In the 80's. full-size American sedans such as LTD are gone. Buyers opt for the family reduced the size of cars like the Fairmont ("Fairmont"). Then it was time models, made ​​in European style. This trend was clearly visible on a series of Thunderbird, when the cars of the typical representatives of the American design patterns become smooth streamlined forms. Another example was the model of the Tempo.

The emblem on the European model Ford 90s. So far, all branches of the concern are the manufacturers of mass production
Despite the change of orientation, Ford has not ceased to be himself, along with releasing mediocre models and such models as the Mustang SVO turbo and an updated Mustang GT. Concern turned to the Japanese for help in creating a more perfect version of the model Taurus ("Taypyc") with engine Yamaha V6 ("Yamaha"), which developed a speed of up to 217 km / h

Tempo was a typical and poorly recognizable American model of Ford 80s. She was one of the family car with compact dimensions
The most attractive cars Ford produced is usually called the Lincoln Continental ("Lincoln Continental"). In the 80's. established closer ties with the European branch of Ford, which led to the creation of a unified database of American and European options Escort. Sold in the U.S. Ford vehicles are sometimes produced abroad: the classic example of this model, Probe ("Probe") and Capri ("Capri") of the late 80s. That were actually changed externally cars Mazda. And yet, the new American style embodied in the successful series of Taurus.
In the mid-60s. Ford Mustang by the term "compact car" ("pony car"). Mustang has spurred the emergence of a new category of powerful models built on sedans



The first in Australia in 1925 were collected cars like Ford T. In a few years important components of Australian manufacturing steel bodywork for cars model "A". Up until the 60s. all Australian Ford cars had their own design. The 70-th years. car Ford-Australia differed from the U.S., but still followed in line with overseas trends, which led to the emergence of such interesting hybrids as a model Cortina ("Cortina") with 6-cylinder engine cylinder capacity of 4.1 liters.

Ford-Australia no still uses an oval logo with a classic sign
Later, for the Australian "LTD" and the Falcon XD ("Falcon") used the stylistic decisions of the European car Granada ("Granada"). In the 80's. increasing influence of Steel due to Ford's Japanese Mazda ("Mazda"). Model Laser ("Laser") end of the 90s. was upgraded Mazda 323, and the only fully Australian Ford vehicles were model series Falcon / Fairmont ("Fairmont") / Ramapo ("Feyrleyn").
For Ford-Australia in the 80s. outstanding sports car turned out to Capri, based at the Mazda 323. In the 90's. successful sports sedan was "XR6" forced the company to Tickford ("Tikford") engine on the model Falcon. At the beginning of the XXI century Australian Ford collects quite a large family cars Falcon classic layout. In the summer of 2001 took them to another upgrade.
Ford Capri ("Ford Capri")
The idea for a new compact sports car captured the American Ford in the early 80's he, "why the various European exhibitions demonstrated barketta concept, created by Ghia (" Gia "). Then, as often happens at Ford, the policy has changed, the car refused, but instead appeared convertible based on the Mazda 323.
Financial ties with the Japanese Mazda Ford began installing the 70-ies. and gradually began to use parts of its production and the experience of a small car class. The new Capri, Ford-Australia gathered and sold in the United States as a Mercury Capri ("Mercury Capri"), a fine example.
Mazda 323, which appeared in 1980 along with a new front wheel drive Ford Escort, suffered a major upgrade in 1985, and after 4 years it appeared the third generation. It was the ideal basis for a new sports model Ford.
For new items meant two options for the 16-valve engine with fuel injection: a supercharged, and the second without charge. The engine and transmission components is upgraded nodes from Mazda 323, which came from Japan. Externally, the machine was significantly different from zadneprivod-term Mazda MX-5, which used the same engine.
Body with retractable headlights was created by Ghia of Turin, and the interior decoration of bother "atelier" ItalDesign ("ItalDi-Zain"). Launch of the new Capri was mysteriously delayed until 1989, and although the car was sold in Australia under the name of Ford, in the U.S. it was called Mercury. He is too sporty Capri explains why concern Ford did not sell it in Europe.

In the picture presented to the American Mercury. However, the Australian Capri differs from it only logos. This sports car has a front-engine with two camshafts and Turbocharged

Characteristics (1989)
Engine: P4, two camshafts
Bore and stroke: 78x83, 6 mm
Displacement: 1598 cm3
Maximum power: 105 or 136 hp
Transmission: 5-speed manual or 4-speed automatic
Chassis: integral body
Suspension: independent on the helical springs
Brakes: disc
Body: Cabriolet 2 2
Maximum speed: 201 km / h (turbo)



If the company does not Franklin has built its cars with only air-cooled engines, insisting that it is the only technically justifiable direction, it would have long since forgotten. Surprisingly not what the company produced cars with air-cooled engines, and that the engines were so big and the company has existed for so long. From 1902 to 1934, she released more than 150 thousand cars.
Cars Franklin suffered from the appearance in the 1932 model Ford V8 and the severe consequences of the economic crisis. Still, the big air-cooled motors attached machines appeal. In the picture presented convertible 1931 Franklin Airman
It seems that the first model specifically opposed to other cars: wooden, not steel frame, fully elliptic leaf springs, and this is when the whole world has rejected them. First, the company offers various types of cars with air-cooled engines, but the 20-th years. all produced in Syracuse, NY, cars have six-cylinder engine with a huge fan for cooling.
The pilots were located in the aircraft for air-cooled engine, is often inclined to purchase cars Franklin, which explains the appearance in the 1927 model Airman ("Pilot"). Buyer of its very first version was Charles Lindbergh (Charles Lindberg).
Peak sales came to Franklin in 1929 (about 14 thousand units) - a year before the Great Depression. In 30-ies. presented two models: one with a new six-cylinder supercharged engine, the second with a V12 engine and the same supercharged. The economic crisis, high prices for cars obsolete design led to a sharp reduction in sales. In 1934 the company ceased production of Franklin.
Franklin Six ("Franklin Six"), 1929-1934
Despite the Great Depression, Franklin introduced a new series of cars, "140" with a traditional chassis and new engine.
Franklin Six air-cooled engine was supercharged and a large fan, elastically fixed to the front end of the crankshaft, a new grille with a thermostat controlled blinds. Cooling air is blown into the space between the cylinders and passed across the engine, rather than along it - hence sticking to it the name "motor side-blowing."
For selling cars with great difficulty, offering a wide range of bodies which had, however, the same front part. In 30-ies. machines have become easier, the prices are down, but even with the advent in 1933, a series of Olympic ("Olympic") business has not improved. For 5 years of production collected 12,090 specimens Franklin Six models with this engine.
Airman Six Sedan 1932 his row "Six" (4.5 liter, 100 hp), lateral flow of air cooled
Characteristics (1930)
Engine: P6, the overhead
Bore and Stroke: 88,9 x120, 65 mm
Displacement: 4494 cm3
Maximum power: 95 hp
Transmission: 3-speed manual
Chassis: the steel frame
Suspension: dependent on the leaf springs
Brakes: drum
Body: steel 4-5-bed types
Maximum speed: 129 km / h (turbo)
Options for Franklin Six Franklin Airman
Airman power six-cylinder engine for the Franklin Six was enlarged in 1931 to 100 hp Structurally similar models Airman appeared in 1932
Franklin Olympic
In 1933-34. Franklin also produces a model of Olympic, the fruit of collaboration with Reo ("Rio"): Chassis Flying Cloud ("Flying Cloud") and the motor Franklin.



The birth of the company Frazer-Nash was a year after the closure of a small company GN (Gee-Ann). Its chief engineer Archie Frazer-Nash (Archie Frazer-Nash) has teamed up with picket F. (F. Picket) and started manufacturing light vehicles from units remaining from the GN. Cars sold under the name of Frazer Nash. Or more correctly Frazer-Nash? With a hyphen or not? These questions concern of historians for many years, especially since the company that used it, it does not. We chose Frazer Nash, because this company has applied in writing of the 50s.

All pre-war Frazer Nash car company had a simple but effective chain transmission
Throughout its history it has remained a small, producing hand-made sports cars. The machines were expensive, their characteristics are asking customers and design solutions in many respects different from the widely accepted at that time.
All pre-war designs connoisseurs affectionately called Chain Gang ("Chain Gang"). They differed chain transmissions with shifting special sockets. Production of these vehicles began in Kingstonapon-Thames in 1924 In 1926 the plant moved to Ayzluort, where he remained under the name of AFN Ltd. In 30-ies. production accounted for the largest portion of the TT sports model Replica ("Voice") with a 1.5-liter Meadows ("Meadows").

The post-war models, like this Le Mans Replica ("Le Mans Replica"), based on his BMW had design
Archie Frazer-Nash as a technically competent person, was improvident businessman, sold the company in 1928, Richard Plunkett-Greene (Richard Plunkett-Greene). Soon the leadership stood GJ Aldington (H.J. Aldington). He went on to release Chain Gang, and brings into the country cars BMW (BMW).
After the war A.F.N. established contact with the company Bristol Aeroplane ("Bristol Eyropleyn") and the well-known designer of BMW engines, Dr. Fiedler (Fiedler). Therefore, all post-war Frazer Nash cars supplied engines Bristol prewar design BMW. Technically, they became more modern, but the cost is extremely expensive and therefore sold out very slowly.

Cars frazer Nash 20-30s. had different engines. This Vitesse ("Vitesse") in 1930 received a four-cylinder overhead valve engine Meadows ("Meadows"), a working volume of 1496 cm3
In the mid-50s. A.F.N. began to represent the interests of the company in the UK Porsche ("Porsche"). In 1960 Frazer Nash car assembly halt. The project is the production of the BMW engine V8, which was called the Continental ("Continental"), producing a single prototype was completed.
Frazer Nash TT Replica ("Frazer Nash TT Replica")
The origin of the GN cars can clearly be seen in every car on the Chain Gang Frazer Nash, including a typical TT Replica. They had a simple frame with straight spars, very hard cantilever leaf springs and easy steering.
Propeller shaft connected to the rear axle, engine, main transmission which consisted of a set of chains with toothed clutches of different sizes. It was so simple, that the critics often do not believe in its effectiveness. In addition, all its elements have been discovered, and often require cleaning and lubrication. Frequent breakdowns compensated easy repair. Since the scheme did not include a transmission differential and rear axle was the continuous narrow gauge and provided excellent traction.

In pre-war independent producers who were unable to produce engines of their own design, used the popular 4-cylinder engine Meadows (1496 cm3, 55-65 HP). SU carburetors with two of his mostly installed on the TT Replica
Over the years the design of cars practically unchanged, and differences, but name, were the establishment of machinery in different engines and bodies. The first 17 ​​cars have engines Plus Power ("Power Plus"), and 215 - Engines Anzani ("Antsani"). In 1933 27 cars assembled with motors Blackburne ("Blackburn"), and in 1934, 27 pieces - from Frazer Nash Cough ("Frazer Nash Kof").
Most models of the company named in memory of former sporting achievements, for example, Shelsley ("Shelsli"), Boulogne ("Boulogne"), Colmore ("Kolmor"), Ulster ("Ulster") and TT Replica. The latter was the largest of all: 6 years were manufactured 85 cars. But the most beloved, the company turned out to be the engine of production Anzani. Only a few models used motor Blackburne, who is a racing version with a supercharged 150 hp could develop At TT Replica is usually installed motor Meadows ("Meadows"), a working volume of 1496 cm3.

TT Replica appeared in 1932 instead Meadows he could get a 6-cylinder engine with two camshafts Blackburn

Characteristics (1932)
Engine: P 4, the upper cam
Bore and Stroke: 69x100 mm
Displacement: 1496 cm3
Maximum power: 62 hp
Transmission: 4-speed chain
Chassis: the steel frame
Suspension: dependent on the cantilever springs
Brakes: drum
Body: 2-seater sports
Maximum speed: 140 km / h
Trazer Nash Le Mans Replica ("Frazer Nash Le Mans Replica")
The post-war plans of the company Frazer Nash were associated with Dr. Fiedler from BMW and its new engine, "328." Improved engines and body became the basis of the first postwar models (with 6-cylinder Bristol).
The original scheme of interaction between companies and the Bristol Aeroplane Frazer Nash provided the use of common designs. The first of these supplies engines and transmissions (under license from BMW), a second hand cars assembled in Aysluorte.

Le Mans Replica with a 2-liter engine design Bristol BMW in the garage track at Goodwood (Goodwood) 1952
All the post-war Frazer Nash models were simple and strong frame made ​​of steel pipes of large diameter. Versions of the year differed only varying degrees of engines and forcing a change of names. The most remembered for was the Le Mans Replica.
Most post-war Frazer Nash cars was a narrow cigar-shaped two-seater body with a motorcycle-type front wings. First, the machine was called High Speed ​​("High Speed​​"), but after winning the first post-war 24-hour race at Le Mans they immediately renamed Le Mans Replica. Of the 83 vehicles with engines from Bristol, issued in 1948-56 years., About 60 bodies had options Le Mans Replica. Its carefully designed chassis provides excellent handling. Engines, in spite of the long stroke pistons, easily gained momentum, and the quality of manufacturing machinery have been beyond criticism.
Frazer Nash offered several options for sports and road cars based on the Le Mans Replica. In this photo provided Mille Miglia e racing version
Characteristics (Le Mans Replica, 1932)
Engine: P6, the overhead
Bore and Stroke: 66x96 mm
Displacement: 1971 cm3
Maximum power: 110-125 hp
Transmission: 4-speed manual
Chassis: the steel frame
Suspension: front independent on the transverse springs, rear torsion dependent
Brakes: drum
Body: 2-seater sports
Maximum speed: 177 km / h
Options Frazer Nash Le Mans Replica
The first name of the car with a body of Le Mans Replica - Speed ​​and Competition ("Kompitishn").
Option Mk II
Le Mans Replica rear suspension was de Dion. In 1948-56 years. on the same post-war chassis to set different engine variants Bristol and body. In particular, the company produced cars with bodies of normal width: sports-ground Fast Tourer ("Fast tourer"), Mille Miglia ("Mille Miglia") for racing and ordinary road. It also brought together three copies of a sports-racing Sebring ("Sebring"). The most recent example of Frazer Nash Continental coupe was the prototype of the frame and suspension on the model of Sebring, V-shaped 8-cylinder engine and gearbox from BMW 50s. In 1957 was built by a single instance.