Monday, March 12, 2012

HOLDEN

HOLDEN

The company that started in 1885 as Holden and Frost ("Holden and Frost") in Adelaide, produced a body for horse-drawn carriages. His first car she collected in 1914 on the chassis Lancia ("Lancia"). In 1920 was created by the union of Holden's Motor Body Builders Ltd. ("Hole-dance Motor Bodi Builders"), in which the founder of the company was engaged in leather upholstery. Meanwhile, the Australian branch of the group General Motors ("GM") has grown based firm in 1918, Motor Exports ("Motor Exports") and in 1926 acquired the Holden. The main occupation of the latter was the bodywork for cars Chevrolet ("Chevy") and Buick ("Buick"), as well as in small quantities for Hudson ("Hudson"), Essex ("Essex"), Chrysler ("Chrysler"), De Soto ("De Soto"), Plymouth ("Plymouth"), Willys ("Willis"), Graham ("Graham"), Reo "(Rio") and Studebaker ("Studebaker"). One of the most attractive car was 2-door fastback Sloper ("Slouper") on the chassis of the American Buick, Chevrolet, Oldsmobile ("Oldsmobil"), Pontiac ("Pontiac") and the European Clyno ("Cline"), FIAT (FIAT) Morris ("Morris"), Singer ("Singer") and Vauxhall ("Vauxhall"). These cars are virtually sold in Europe and the USA. In addition, the company's new plant, which was put into operation in Melbourne in 1936, produced a body for the British and American trucks, and during the Second World War, Holden made and army vehicles - from the commander and sanitation to the tanker trucks and artillery.


The car Holden General ("GE") in 1961 is almost completely copied his model modern Vauxhall and Opel. It was a time when cars were the best selling company in Australia
After the war, began production of cars on the chassis of Chevrolet and Vauxhall. Holden Executive Director of the Sir Laurence Hartnett (Lawrence Hartnett) proposed the concept of a fully Australian small car, in the size class, occupying an intermediate position between the British and American models. His plan is supported by leaders of General Motors in Detroit, the Australian government and the banks. The prototype appeared in 1946, and the first production car Holden off the production line in November 1948 He was a 4-door sedan "48/215" with a monocoque body and 6-cylinder overhead valve engine cylinder capacity of 2.2 liters. The last body of the chassis for the U.S. company launched in 1948, and the chassis Vauxhall - in the 1952 release of bodies for trucks Bedford ("Bedford") continued until the late 50s. In January 1951 came the first passenger "48/215", and by May 1953 were sold the first 100 thousand cars.
In 1956 he began production of the "FE" - six-seater sedan with the same engine and gearbox. In 1960, with an increase in engine capacity to 2.3 liters, and power - up to 75 hp model has received index "FB". The first time Holden has outstripped the sales of all vehicle manufacturers in Australia in 1950 and has since led to the 1982 when the first came out Ford. In October 1962 the production line of the main plant Bend ("Wend") came into Fishermene millionth car, a two millionth Holden was made in March, 1969 Body is still collected at the first plant Woodwille ("Woodville"). Other assembly plants located in Peydzhvude, ea. New South Wales, Brisbane, Perth and Birkenhede, South Australia. In 1963 it added a new body plant in Elizabeth, South Australia. In 1964 he opened another plant in Akaki Ridge, Queensland.





Trucks and cargo vehicles are popular in Australia. Holden produces this pickup Maloo ("Maul") with a 1998 engine with a large working volume. His department has created a special-purpose vehicles, as well as the VT Commodore GTS (in the photo - a pickup truck), which develops the speed 243 km / h
The range expanded in 1967 by a small Torana HB ("Tor-na"), changes in the external Vauxall Viva ("Viva"), and in 1968 car-the flagship Holden HK engine Chevrolet V8. In 1969, Holden began to produce their own engines V8 (4,1 and 5,0 l). Mopago Coupe ("Monaro") has received full Australian V8 engine and 5.3-liter Chevrolet 327, later - Chevrolet 454 (7.4 L), which helped to win the race Ford Falcon 289. In 1968-76 years. produced about 41 thousand Mopago. Torana LH series was collected in 1974-79 years. with 4 -, b-and 8-cylinder engines (from 1.9-liter Opel to 5-liter V8). Model Gemini ("Gemini"), replacing the Torana, a Japanese version of the Vauxhall Chevette ("Shevett"). Another neavstraliyskim Holden became in 1979 the car Commodore ("Commodore") with engine capacity of 1,9-4,1 m. He became the best selling on the Green continent until it was overtaken by Ford Falcon ("Falcon").
The globalization of General Motors has led the company exported in 70-ies. in the UK for the wagon body panels Camira ("Camiri"), and in the 80s. - For versatile Vauxhall Cavalier ("Cavalier"). Motors Holden established a number of models of cars Vauxhall and Opel ("Opel") for the Swedish market, as the requirements for toxicity in Sweden and Australia were the same. In addition, there were several joint ventures with Japanese Nissan ("Nissan") and Isuzu ("Isuzu"). Holden led a range of late 80-ies. model Commodore with a 3-liter Isuzu or 5-liter V8 from General Motors. Department of Holden Special Vehicles ("Holden Speshiel Viiklz") in partnership with the British firm TRW makes machines for the so-called superturinga: 5-liter Manta ("Manta"), a 5.7-liter "GTS" and Grange ("Grange"). Topping the range of 5 liter Holden Statesman ("Steytsmen") and Caprice ("Caprice").
Holden VR HSV GTS 215i ("Holden VR HSV GTS 215i") 1994-2000
A perfect example of Holden Special Vehicles department has VR Commodore GTS 215i, capable of accelerating from standstill to 100 km / h in 6.6 seconds - one of the most dynamic production cars of Australian production. It was also the fastest Australian production model - the maximum speed of 243 km / h The car received a new engine Holden V8 (5,7 n) with fuel injection, 6-speed gearbox and limited slip differential. Engine developed 215 hp at 4800 rev / min and maximum torque of 475 Nm at 3600 r / min. At the same time limiting engine speed was set at 5500 rev / min. The increased load on the front wheels assumed that "GTS 215i" is prone to understeer, but it sensitively reacts to the control action has allowed the engine to cope with the problem by manipulating the fuel pedal. Drive clutch - cable-hydraulic. The brakes - ventilated discs and brakes, tires size 235/45ZR17.


High-speed "VR HSV GTS 2151" was released in 1994 is the fastest passenger serial model of Australia with a XX century, a 5.7-liter V8 engine

characterization
Engine: V8, 16 valves
Bore and stroke: 102x88 mm
Displacement: 5710 cm3
Maximum power: 8.5
Transmission: 4-carrier in the back of the door
Chassis: Independent on helical springs
Holden Commodore VN Group A ("Holden Commodore VN Group A") 1991
VN Commodore was the last of a series of "VN" for the development of Omolo-delegations to compete for the requirements of group A. A total of 302 cars produced from the planned 500, and the last produced March 8, 1991 fairings kit created with the help of purging in the wind tunnel MIRA in the UK . The coefficient of air resistance, Cd was less than 0.3, compared with a value of 0.34 for the base model "VN". Like many of the most powerful models of Holden, model VN Group A began its life as a Berlina ("Berlin"), because it was less luxurious equipment that needs to be changed in the preparation of a special sports saloon in the workshops of Holden Special Vehicles.
One of the latest versions of Holden HRT series began in 1998 funded by Mobil ("Mobil") car VT Commodore V8
From their series of twins differed VN Commodore 17-inch wheels and tires, with the ratio of height to its width 0.45, a completely overhauled engine for the Group A V8 (215 hp), 6-speed manual ZR1 Corvette ("Corvette") German firm ZF (ZF). Almost all engine parts have been reworked, in particular, increased diameter of the valve lifters and rods, reinforced valve springs are used, cast from a special aluminum alloy rocker cover and pressure air chamber, upgraded crankshaft with steel and reinforced double row with asterisks chain drive camshaft, pistons and connecting rods for racing, easier to 7 kg flywheel and reinforced liners main and connecting rod bearings. Complementary picture of the electric fuel pump high-pressure fuel tank for more capacity and protection against rocks. The car accelerates from a standstill to 100 km / h in 6.2 seconds with a top speed of 250 km / h
Front suspension and archaic rear axle were reinforced springs, specially selected anti-roll bars and shock absorbers Bilstein ("Bilshtayn"). The car body was painted in dark red color, but released, and two specific instances - Black and White "metallic." The first cars were a simple air-conditioning. The driver Win Percy (Win Percy) used the VN Group A with the chassis number "016" as a personal road car with registration number "WIN 1."


No comments:

Post a Comment